Volume 4 Number 3 & 4

 

153

OVERVIEW ON FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND OBESITY IN EUROPE: STRATEGIES, EFFICACY AND SAFETY
A. Palou and C. Picó[ABSTRACT]

175

EVALUATION OF GLUCOSAMINE AND CHONDROITIN IN THE PREVENTION OF OSTEOARTHRITIS AND MAINTENANCE OF HEALTHY JOINTS
J. Gallo, P. Horak, V. Simanek, and J. Potomkova[ABSTRACT]

187

METABOLISM OF DIETARY PHYTOCHEMICALS: A REVIEW OF THE METABOLIC FORMS IDENTIFIED IN HUMANS
JPE Spencer, M. Abd El Mohsen, and A-M Minihane

205

FLAXSEED AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD FOR PETS
Christine A. Rees

211

INULIN AND BONE HEALTH
Diederick Meyer and Marianne Stasse-Wolthuis[ABSTRACT]

227

BOVINE COLOSTRUM AS A BIOACTIVE PRODUCT AGAINST HUMAN MICROBIAL INFECTIONS AND GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS
H. Li and R.E. Aluko[ABSTRACT]

239

ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY OF THE FLAVONOL QUERCETIN - A REVIEW
Stephanie Lesser and Siegfried Wolffram[ABSTRACT]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 4, Number 3 & 4, pp. 153-174 (2007)

OVERVIEW ON FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND OBESITY IN EUROPE: STRATEGIES, EFFICACY AND SAFETY
A. Palou and C. Picó

ABSTRACT: Obesity, as well as its associated medical complications such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, has reached epidemic proportions around the world. Thus, preventing and treating obesity is becoming an increasing priority. Although it is known that dietary restriction and increase physical activity can lead to weight loss, functional foods helping for prevention and/ or management of obesity and related diseases may be helpful adjuncts to a dietary and lifestyle approach. The basis for functional food development for body weight control should be the knowledge of the body weight control system, including the key genes involved in energy balance and the potential effects of nutrients or food components on gene regulation and function, as well as inter-individual variations based on genetic and acquired particularities in the responses to nutrients. Considering functional foods for body weight control, the following main strategies can be outlined: i) inhibition of food intake, by inhibiting orexigenic signals or enhancing anorexigenic signals, o by limiting the bioavailability of macronutrients; ii) decrease in the caloric content of foods, by substituting sugar or fat by less caloric or less digestible substances; iii) stimulation of energy expenditure (thermogenesis); and iv) regulation of nutrient partition between tissues and not favouring the efficiency of fat deposition processes. Functional foods for obesity may also include foods that affect the glucose-insulin homeostasis and ameliorates the risk factors for collateral illness such as diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. In any case, a combination of some of these processes can have higher effects and help in the management of obesity. Here, it is reviewed how some food components and feeding patterns can affect these processes, and also the European framework on food safety and efficacy where the development of functional foods for obesity control - throughout scientifically substantiated health claims - has to be developed.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 4, Number 3 & 4, pp. 175-186 (2007)

EVALUATION OF GLUCOSAMINE AND CHONDROITIN IN THE PREVENTION OF OSTEOARTHRITIS AND MAINTENANCE OF HEALTHY JOINTS
J. Gallo, P. Horak, V. Simanek, and J. Potomkova

ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disorder of the synovial joints with serious individual and social consequences. A numberof medical treatment/prevention strategies for OA with varying levels of evidence have been recommended including long-term use of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Both substances have been widely tested in randomized clinical trials and achieved respectable levels of evidence in terms of pain relief and functional improvement. However, in practice it is not always easy to distinguish responders from non-responders to such therapy. Inconsistencies may stem from the heterogeneity of the disease itself in conjunction with wide interindividual variability. In addition, for neither glucosamine nor chondroitin is there sufficient evidence for either OA prevention or its retardation. Unfortunately, the early stages of the disease, potentially optimal for this nutraceutical approach, are unclear while advanced cases have limited capacity for tissue regeneration. Further, osteoarthritic chondrocytes are not viewed as effective target cells except in early stages. Hence, other cell populations should be targeted. Overall, a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis with identification of more favorable treatment pathways as well as progress in early diagnostics may lead to improved outcomes in the future.

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 4, Number 3 & 4, pp. 187-204 (2007)

METABOLISM OF DIETARY PHYTOCHEMICALS: A REVIEW OF THE METABOLIC FORMS IDENTIFIED IN HUMANS
JPE Spencer, M. Abd El Mohsen, and A-M Minihane

ABSTRACT: Dietary derived phytochemicals have been proposed to act as beneficial agents in a multitude of disease states, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the biological effect of such compounds will ultimately depend on the cellular effects of their circulating metabolites. The focus of this review is to examine the current knowledge regarding the biotransformation of different classes of phytochemicals in humans. Notably, the data compiled here represents only that obtained from human studies following consumption of phytochemicals in meals or in a dose comparable with normal dietary intake. In addition, we have considered only those studies where more powerful analytical techniques have been used in the characterisation of metabolic forms. We provide clear information regarding the types of metabolites that are likely to be present in humans following oral ingestion. Ultimately this will help identify metabolic forms that should represent the focus of future cellular mechanistic investigations.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 4, Number 3 & 4, pp. 205-210 (2007)

FLAXSEED AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD FOR PETS
Christine A. Rees

ABSTRACT: Flaxseed has gained popularity as a nutritional supplement in veterinary species for the past several years. The majority of the initial flaxseed studies in animals were in laboratory animals. More recently, studies been conducted in dogs, cats and horses which demonstrate the importance of this fatty acid supplement in companion animals. The importance of the form of flaxseed, the biochemical and biological activity of the fatty acids found in flaxseed, and the therapeutic benefits of flaxseed supplementation will be discussed.

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 4, Number 3 & 4, pp. 211-226 (2007)

INULIN AND BONE HEALTH

Diederick Meyer and Marianne Stasse-Wolthuis

ABSTRACT: This review paper presents an overview of the effects of inulins on various aspects of bone health. It is the result of a discussion organised by Sensus to assess the possible benefits inulin consumption may have on bone health and parameters related to bone health. The paper addresses the following topics: what are inulins, what is the effect of inulin consumption on various aspects of bone health, such as mineral absorption and bone mineral density, the physiological relevance of these effects and how can these effects be used to make health claims on food products. It also provides a short description of bone health and metabolism, and osteoporosis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 4, Number 3 & 4, pp. 227-238 (2007)

BOVINE COLOSTRUM AS A BIOACTIVE PRODUCT AGAINST HUMAN MICROBIAL INFECTIONS AND GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS

H. Li and R.E. Aluko

ABSTRACT: Colostrum is a yellowish milky fluid produced by the breasts in the last few weeks of pregnancy and in the first 2- 3 days after childbirth. It is rich in fats, sugars, proteins, antibodies, growth factors, vitamins and minerals. Colostrum represents a means of passive immune transfer from mother to the neonatal. It is a very important component of breast milk and helps in the establishment of early immune system that can protect against various gastrointestinal tract infections and stimulate better growth and development of the neonatal. For obvious reasons, human colostrum can not be used for commercial purposes but bovine colostrum, which is both safe and have similar compositional properties as human colostrums has been used extensively as a health supplement. The aim of this review is to describe the major nutritive components of colostrums and discuss their roles in providing protection against microbial infections and gastrointestinal tract disorders.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 4, Number 3 & 4, pp. 239-256 (2007)

ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY OF THE FLAVONOL QUERCETIN - A REVIEW Stephanie Lesser and Siegfried Wolffram

ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with a polyphenol structure. In the 1930s, flavonoids were thought to have vitamin properties, whereas they were considered as potential mutagens and carcinogens in the 1970ies. Attention focused on their anti-mutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities in the 1980ies. In recent years, the antioxidant properties of flavonoids and their potential role in both, inhibition of low- density lipoprotein oxidation and platelet aggregation, were reported (Hertog, 1996). Protective properties of flavonoids in conjunction with so-called 'free radical diseases', such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD3), cancer, or cataract, are actually discussed and, in case of CVD, are supported by epidemiologic studies. These findings have resulted in increased interest in the health-promoting aspects of flavonoids. In order to evaluate their bioactivity in vivo, it is necessary to understand the factors influencing the fate of flavonoids within the gastrointestinal tract and the nature of the conjugates and metabolites present in the circulation. This review provides an overview on the present knowledge on flavonol bioavailability, thereby focusing on the flavonol quercetin. Quercetin is an abundant flavonoid in vegetal food, and due to its potent antioxidative properties it is also one of the most investigated polyphenols. Emphasize is put on mechanisms of intestinal absorption, and on factors influencing intestinal absorption of quercetin. Furthermore, metabolism, distribution and elimination of quercetin are reviewed.