Volume 1 Number 4 November 2003

 

Review Articles
225 Beneficial Effects of Dietary Xylitol on Mineralized and Collagenous Tissues
PT MATTILA, MLE KNUUTTILA, AND MJ SVANBERG [ABSTRACT]
235 The Health Aspects Of Probiotics In Humans
J MAKKINGA, M WALTA, PJF DE VRIES, AND G SCHAAFSMA [ABSTRACT]
245 Low Glycemic Carbohydrates in Disease Prevention
CL PELKMAN AND PJ MAHANEY [ABSTRACT]
257 Medicinal Mushrooms - A Prominent Source of Nutriceuticals for the 21st century
ST CHANG AND JA BUSWELL[ABSTRACT]
Research Articles
281 281-288 Use Of Endogenous Enzymes In Development Of Functional Foods From Wheat
HIROYUKI NAGAOKA [ABSTRACT]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 4, pp. 225-234 (2003)

Beneficial Effects of Dietary Xylitol on Mineralized and Collagenous Tissues
PT MATTILA, MLE KNUUTTILA, AND MJ SVANBERG
ABSTRACT: Dietary xylitol supplementation increases calcium and phosphorus levels of the bone in rats and protects against decrease of bone minerals and of bone density during experimental osteoporosis. Xylitol reduces the rate of bone resorption and protects against increase of bone resorption during experimental osteoporosis. Xylitol intake also leads to increased trabecular bone volume in the long bones of healthy rats and protects against decrease of trabecular bone volume during experimental osteoporosis. Dietary xylitol supplementation also increases the strength properties of long bones in healthy rats and protects against weakening of bone biomechanical properties during experimental osteoporosis. A continuous moderate dietary xylitol supplementation protects significantly against osteoporotic changes in aged rats. Xylitol protects also against streptozotocin-induced osseal changes during experimental type I diabetes. Furthermore, in the skin of these diabetic rats, dietary xylitol protects against the decrease in the amount of newly synthesized collagen, against the increase in the hexose content of acid-soluble collagen, and against the increase in fluorescence of the collagenase-soluble fraction. In conclusion, the above results strongly support the hypothesis that oral administration of xylitol protects effectively against progression of experimental osteoporosis following ovariectomy and during aging. Furthermore, dietary xylitol protects against undesirable changes in the bones and in the skin of streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 4, pp. 235-244 (2003)
The Health Aspects Of Probiotics In Humans
J MAKKINGA, M WALTA, PJF DE VRIES, AND G SCHAAFSMA

ABSTRACT: Probiotics and particularly fermented dairy products with probiotics receive a lot of attention because of their potential health benefits. Some of these health benefits are well documented, like the improvement of lactose utilisation by the ingestion of conventional yoghurt, the therapeutic effect on rotavirus diarrhoea, the modulation of different parameters of the immune system and the short term effect on cholesterol metabolism. Other health aspects, which however need further investigation, can be expected on inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Also the production of vitamins and bioactive peptides due to fermentation is an emerging area.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 4, pp. 245-256 (2003)

Low Glycemic Carbohydrates in Disease Prevention
CL PELKMAN AND PJ MAHANEY

ABSTRACT: The Glycemic Index characterizes foods based on the postprandial glycemic response they elicit compared to a standard food, such as white bread or glucose. Foods that contain high amounts of glucose or starches that are readily hydrolyzed to glucose will be absorbed more quickly and have higher glycemic indices. Researchers hypothesize that high-glycemic foods cause rapid increases in glycemia and insulinemia, followed by hypoglycemia, exaggerated counter-regulatory responses, such as elevated glucagon release, and subsequent increases in plasma concentrations of free fatty acids in the postprandial period. Proposed long-term consequences of consuming high-glycemic foods include increased adiposity, and increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to explain the physiological basis of the GI concept and critically examine the evidence supporting the hypothesized health outcomes. The data support the proposed short-term metabolic consequences, however, negative findings from some studies highlight the need for further investigation of possible mediating variables, such as size of the carbohydrate load and population differences. Data supporting a causal relationship between GI and disease prevention are lacking. Well-controlled, longer-term studies are needed to assess this proposed relationship.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 4, pp. 257-280 (2003)

Medicinal Mushrooms - A Prominent Source of Nutriceuticals for the 21st century
ST CHANG AND JA BUSWELL

ABSTRACT: Modern analytical techniques have confirmed traditional beliefs that mushrooms represent a valuable source of bioactive agents, Òmushroom nutriceuticalsÓ, that exhibit many different medicinal properties. Of these, polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes, triterpenes, lectins and fungal immunomodulatory proteins have been studied most extensively. These agents, derived from the mushroom fruit body, cultured mycelium and/or culture filtrates, exert a wide range of beneficial biological effects when tested in vitro or using animal models. For example, many mushroom polysaccharides and proteopolysaccharides exhibit antitumor and anticancer activities that appear to depend on associated immunomodulating effects. Other mushroom nutriceuticals are antidiabetic, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, genoprotective, or have antibiotic activity against both bacteria and viruses. Recent years have seen a surge of commercial interest in these products, the current market value of which is estimated at US$8-9 billion. This is expected to increase even further once the attributed medicinal properties are confirmed in human intervention trials, and when concerns relating to quality control and product safety are addressed.

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 4, pp. 281-289 (2003)

281-289 Use Of Endogenous Enzymes In Development Of Functional Foods From Wheat
HIROYUKI NAGAOKA

ABSTRACT: Manipulating germination conditions can alter nutrient compositions of wheat. Phytic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were enriched with the use of higher concentrations of water-solute oxygen in the process of germination (188 ± 28 mg/100 g, 50 ± 8 mg/100 g, 150 ± 18 mg/100 g, respectively). With uncontrolled concentration of water-solute oxygen, the g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content reached 18 ± 3 times the normal content. Germinated wheat also contains a functional ingredient expected to prevent skin spot or freckles in humans by inhibiting the activity of enzyme tyrosinase. We further found that wheat germ and wheat bran produced by separating whole-wheat retained enzymatic reactions similar to those of whole wheat. GABA was found at the highest concentration in wheat germ and was further enriched to 63 ± 2 mg/ 100 g by added water. Further, IP6 is most concentrated in wheat bran was also enriched to 680 ± 25 mg/ 100 g by added water. We refer to the capacity of cereal tissue to be enriched or converted to functional products by means of endogenous enzymes as the Òfourth function of foodÓ. These results indicate that functional wheat products rich in one or more functional components can be successfully mass-produced.