Volume 3 Number 3 May 2005

 

Points-Counterpoints
147

Should statin users take supplemental coenzyme Q10?
CHANDAN PRASAD

149

Potential role of concomitant coenzyme Q10 with statins for patients with hyperlipidemia
PETER H. LANGSJOEN, GIAN PAOLO LITTARRU, AND MARC A. SILVER [ABSTRACT]

159

The “promise” of a good hypothesis: statins and coenzyme Q10 therapy
BARRY E. BLESKE

163

Statins and coenzyme Q10: Intersection of established medical therapeutics, clinical pharmacology and the emerging evidence-based science of complementary and alternative medicine for protecting cardiovascular health
RONALD LIEBERMAN

Research Articles
167

Flaxseed as a functional food
ANNELI TARPILA, TERO WENNBERG AND SIMO TARPILA [ABSTRACT]

189

Genes, genomes and molecular biology in nutrition research: A story of opportunities and challenges
RUAN M. ELLIOTT [ABSTRACT]

193

Genetic tests for personalized dietary advice. A review
RIANNE M. WEGGEMANS [ABSTRACT]

199

New Zealand - Fertile ground for functional foods and nutrigenomics
LYNNETTE R. FERGUSON AND MARTIN PHILPOTT [ABSTRACT]


205 Book Reviews

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 3, Number 3, pp. 149-158 (2005)

Potential role of concomitant coenzyme Q10 with statins for patients with hyperlipidemia
PETER H. LANGSJOEN, GIAN PAOLO LITTARRU, AND MARC A. SILVER

ABSTRACT: Progressive accumulation of oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and nucleotides may lead to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive decline in humans and animals. One of the primary sources of free radical species that can damage macromolecules is the mitochondrion. This review focuses on evidence of beneficial effects of antioxidant supplementation on cognitive function obtained from both human clinical trials and studies of animal models. Human observational studies and clinical trials variably report improved cognition with supplement use and reduced risk for the development of pathological aging. Further, a combination of antioxidants provides superior protection than administration of single compound supplements. In rodent models, administration of either antioxidants or mitochondrial cofactors improves behavioral and neuronal function outcome measures, with combined supplement approaches producing larger effects than single item supplements. Our work shows that long-term feeding with a diet rich in a broad spectrum of antioxidants leads to improved cognition, in a canine model of cognitive aging. We have also found that long-term maintenance on the enriched diet has neuroprotective effects manifest later in life. Collectively, the results from human and animal studies suggest that the intake of a broad spectrum of antioxidants, particularly through an enriched diet, may promote successful cognitive aging.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 3, Number 3, pp. 167-188 (2005)

Flaxseed as a functional food
ANNELI TARPILA, TERO WENNBERG AND SIMO TARPILA

ABSTRACT: The use of flaxseed as a dietary supplement is increasing in parallel with the research on its multitudinous effects on human health. Water-binding capacity of flaxseed insoluble fiber increases the intestinal bulk which is useful in the treatment of constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease. Soluble fiber from flaxseed mucilage delays gastric emptying, improves glycemic control, alleviates constipation and reduces serum cholesterol. Epidemiological studies show that the intake of dietary fiber and colorectal cancer correlate inversely. Flaxseed lignans and fatty acids have been investigated in several cohort studies for their effects on breast cancer risk and there is an association between elevated serum enterolactone and decreased incidence of breast cancer. The flaxseed diet has been shown to be beneficial on prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia when defined by cell proliferation indexes and other cancer biomarkers. Alpha-linolenic acid seems to have an antiproliferative effect on prostate cancer cells. Elevated serum enterolactone level associates with a lower incidence of acute coronary heart disease. Respectively, low serum enterolactone enhances the risk for coronary deaths. Alpha-linolenic acid has been shown protective against cerebrovascular stroke and atherogenic carotid plaque formation. This article reviews health aspects of dietary flaxseed in light of current scientific research.

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 3, Number 3, pp. 189-193 (2005)

Genes, genomes and molecular biology in nutrition research: A story of opportunities and challenges
RUAN M. ELLIOTT

ABSTRACT: The wealth of freely available genetic information derived from genome mapping projects and the development of functional genomic and other powerful molecular biological tools have lead to profound changes in the scope of life science research and the way it is performed. As in many other disciplines, scientists in the fields of food science and nutrition are now beginning to fully realise the enormous potential these new resources and are seeking to integrate them into their research. However, there are still a number of issues specific to nutrition research that need to be addressed to ensure that this opportunity is exploited to the full.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 3, Number 3, pp. 193-198 (2005)

Genetic tests for personalized dietary advice. A review
RIANNE M. WEGGEMANS

ABSTRACT: Many metabolic disorders are at least in part treated through diet. Identification of common genetic variants, so called polymorphisms, which affect dietary responsiveness, may help to identify persons that benefit or do not benefit from a specific dietary treatment. A genetic test that predicts an individual’s responsiveness would thus allow for personalized dietary advice to treat or prevent disease. New testing technology is creating inexpensive ways of identifying differences in many genes all at once. Companies working on genetic tests are very optimistic about the application of these tests for dietary advice. However, as yet, a genetic test based on genetic polymorphisms cannot reliably predict an individual’s responsiveness to dietary factors in the general population. Limiting factors are the relatively low level of heritability of dietary responsiveness, the likelihood that many genes will be involved, and the large number of dietary factors that can be changed. More epidemiological and dietary trials are therefore needed to test claims linking genetic polymorphisms to dietary responsiveness. In conclusion, at present dietary advice based on common genetic polymorphisms is not yet possible. It may first become feasible in individuals with certain metabolic conditions, but it remains uncertain whenever this will be.

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 3, Number 3, pp. 199-204 (2005)

New Zealand - Fertile ground for functional foods and nutrigenomics
LYNNETTE R. FERGUSON AND MARTIN PHILPOTT

ABSTRACT: Nutrition-related disorders including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various cancers rank highly among the causes of death and disability in New Zealand, with significant differences between racial groups in disease susceptibility. While the bulk of the population are Caucasians, a significant proportion are of Polynesian origins, including both Maori and Pacific Island groups, with an increasing Asian immigrant population. Maori have significantly lower colon cancer and significantly higher stomach, breast, lung and pancreatic cancers in comparison with the rest of the population. Both diabetes and cardiovascular disease develop at an earlier age in both Polynesian and Asian groups as compared with those of Caucasian origin. Thus, dietary manipulation has the potential to significantly affect health and disease-related outcomes in the different racial groups of New Zealand. However, major dietary changes within the population are difficult to implement. Functional foods offer the solution of modifying the nutritive properties of foods that people already consume. New Zealand’s high incidence of diet related diseases makes it an ideal testing ground for new developments in functional foods. The key to these developments is nutrigenomics, which offers approaches powerful enough to explore the complex interactions between nutrients and biological systems, allowing the rational design of functional foods.