Volume 2 Number 4 November 2004

 

Research Articles
191 A comparison of mammalian and plant estrogens on vascular reactivity in young and old mice with or without disruption of estrogen receptors
J. KOUDY WILLIAMS, IRMA SUPARTO, JEFFREY B. HODGIN, JAMIE L. FOX, AND KENNETH S. KORACH[ABSTRACT]
Review Articles
201 Nutritional interventions for premenstrual syndrome (PMS): A review of the evidence for their efficacy
MARIA BRYANT AND LOUISE DYE[ABSTRACT]
219 Health effects and probiotic metabolites: Anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic activity of polyamines produced by Bifidobacterium lactis LKM512
MITSUHARU MATSUMOTO AND YOSHIMI BENNO[ABSTRACT]
227 Comprehensive comparison of the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables based on typical serving sizes from common methods
C.BEER,R.A.MYERS,J.H.SORENSON,AND L.R.BUCCI[ABSTRACT]
Global Research Resources
251 Functional food research at the New Zealand institute for Crop & Food Research CAROLYN LISTER[ABSTRACT]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 2, Number 4, pp. 191-200 (2004)
A comparison of mammalian and plant estrogens on vascular reactivity in young and old mice with or without disruption of estrogen receptors
J. KOUDY WILLIAMS, IRMA SUPARTO, JEFFREY B. HODGIN, JAMIE L. FOX, AND KENNETH S. KORACH

ABSTRACT: The objective of these studies was to compare the effects of plant and mammalian estrogens on vascular function in young and old mice. Aortic rings from young (2 months) and old (2 years) wild-type, estrogen receptor-a, or estrogen receptor-b, female knockout mice were incubated in vehicle, 10 nM estradiol, 100 nM genistein, or 100 nM daidzein for 24 hours and changes in tension measured to the vasoconstrictor phenylephrine. Estradiol and genistein reduced constriction to phenylephrine by 3517% and 3716% (respectively) in young wild-type mice (p<0.05 vs. untreated rings). The effect of estradiol on phenylephrine responses was diminished in young estrogen receptor-b knockout mice (p>0.05 vs. untreated rings) but not estrogen receptor-_ knockout mice (p<0.05). Estrogen receptor deletion of either estrogen receptor-_ or _ did not diminish the effects of genistein on phenylephrine responses. In old wild-type mice, genistein reduced constrictor responses to phenylephrine by 3014% (p<0.05). There was no effect of estradiol on constrictor responses to phenylephrine in old wild-type mice (p>0.05). Estrogen receptor disruption did not alter genistein effects on phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction in old mice. Daidzein had no effect on phenylephrine responses in any of the age or treatment groups. It is concluded that estradiol diminishes vasoconstrictor responses to phenylephrine, primarily through an estrogen receptor-b-mediated mechanism. However, the effects of genistein on these responses are estrogen receptor-independent. Aging diminishes the effects of estradiol, but not genistein, on phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 2, Number 4, pp. 201-218 (2004)

Nutritional interventions for premenstrual syndrome (PMS): A review of the evidence for their efficacy
MARIA BRYANT AND LOUISE DYE

ABSTRACT: Premenstrual Syndrome is a cyclical condition with a range of affective, behavioural and somatic symptoms and no clear aetiology. A range of therapeutic approaches has been used in its treatment. Dietary supplements are convenient, widely accessible and are heavily marketed towards women. This article provides a comprehensive review of the efficacy of the most common nutrient interventions that have been used in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. For some nutrients, suggested mechanisms do not have a substantive evidence base. This review finds only moderate support for some nutrients in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Based on randomised controlled trials, the most promising interventions include calcium-nutrient combinations, although there is some concern with regards to dosing levels. There is potential for soy isoflavones to reduce symptoms, but to date, most evidence is anecdotal. The quality and scientific rigour of the majority of studies that examine nutrient supplements for premenstrual syndrome is poor. Even when only randomised controlled trials are included, methodological weaknesses are still evident and findings cannot be considered robust. There is therefore an urgent need to conduct double blind, placebo controlled trials of nutrient supplements that are currently in widespread use in the female population.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 2, Number 4, pp. 219-226 (2004)

Health effects and probiotic metabolites: Anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic activity of polyamines produced by Bifidobacterium lactis LKM512
MITSUHARU MATSUMOTO AND YOSHIMI BENNO

ABSTRACT: The health effects of probiotics seem to be induced by improvement of intestinal environment, which depends on metabolites produced by probiotics or improved intestinal microbiota rather than on changes in intestinal microbiota composition. Bifidobacterium lactis LKM512 is a probiotic strain with ideal properties including acid-tolerance and adhesion to human intestinal mucosa. We administered yogurt containing this strain (LKM512 yogurt) to elderly volunteers and healthy adults with poor defecation, and reported that LKM512 formed gut microbiota made up of 10% of the total bacterial count with cultivation method. Fecal content of haptoglobin, which was used as a marker of acute inflammation, decreased significantly following LKM512 yogurt consumption. Fecal mutagenicity was also decreased by LKM512 yogurt consumption. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in feces increased or tended to increase by LKM512 yogurt consumption. Decreased fecal haptoglobin and mutagenicity correlated negatively with fecal polyamine content. Several groups reported the beneficial effects of polyamines, for example, suppression of synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, maturation/recovery of gut tissue, and antimutagenicity. A novel hypothesis is introduced in this review, in which polyamines is produced by LKM512 yogurt consumption. The latter step leads to suppression of acute inflammation and antimutagenicity.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 2, Number 4, pp. 227-250 (2004)

Comprehensive comparison of the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables based on typical serving sizes from common methods
C.BEER,R.A.MYERS,J.H.SORENSON,AND L.R.BUCCI

ABSTRACT: Interest in phytonutrients and recognition of their health impact is strongly increasing in the US. The antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables has been linked to decreased oxidative stress, reduced risk of incidence for some cancers, reduced blood pressure, reduced incidence of stroke and heart disease, as well as lower low-density lipoprotein concentrations in humans. A multitude of data is available in the literature on antioxidant capacity of fruit and vegetables using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), total radical trapping parameter assay (TRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), as well as other methods. Because inter-conversion of results of the different methods is inappropriate, and not all fruits and vegetables have been analyzed by each method, gaps exist in assessing antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables. We have compiled available data into a single comprehensive list comparing the four methods and standardizing antioxidant capacity to recommended serving sizes. On a per serving basis, berries and dried fruits exhibited greater antioxidant capacities than other fruits, vegetables and grains. Although most foods showed a range of antioxidant capacities by each determination, it was apparent that capacity values for any particular food were comparable among assays. This list will be of great value as guidance for physicians, doctors, nutritionists, and other health care providers for comparing, choosing and recommending foods or products to increase dietary intake of antioxidant phytonutrients. It also reveals areas where research and analysis still needs to be done and which fruits and vegetables need to be added to the list.

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 2, Number 4, pp. 251-254 (2004)

Functional food research at the New Zealand institute for Crop & Food Research
CAROLYN LISTER

ABSTRACT: This article highlights some of the functional food research activity at the New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research. Crop & Food Research has a number of government and industry funded research programs, including: a) development of snack foods with a focus on managing the energy balance (glycaemic impact), b) delivery of concept functional foods from NZ raw materials to prevent or treat Helicobacter pylori related conditions (e.g. ulcers, gastritis), c) applications for novel marine ingredients, c) natural plant pigments for visual appeal and also to enhance the nutritional value of foods, e) creation of wellness products combining the health-enhancing properties from fruit and vegetables with dairy ingredients, f) research investigating the health benefits of berryfruit, and g) Vital Vegetables., a partnership aimed at enhancing the health benefits of vegetables. The New Zealand government has also invested new funding in the area of nutrigenomics research. The research is being undertaken by a new collaborative partnership, called the New Zealand Nutrigenomics Centre of Excellence, involving the University of Auckland, Crop & Food Research, AgResearch and HortResearch. Many of the above programs involve collaboration with other research organizations in New Zealand and Australia, as well as with industry internationally.