Volume 1 Number 2 May 2003

 

Commentary
105 Cardiovascular Benefit of Long Chain n-3 Fatty Acids – The Evidence Gets Stronger
PHILIP C. CALDER AND PARVEEN YAQOOB [TEXT]
Review Articles
113 Functional Foods in Primary Prevention or Nutraceuticals in Secondary Prevention?
WILLIAM E.M. LANDS[ABSTRACT]
121 Role of Tocotrienols in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Breast Cancer
PAUL W. SYLVESTER AND ANDRE THERIAULT [ABSTRACT]
137 Regulation of Health Claims for Foods in the US and Japan
ANNETTE DICKINSON [ABSTRACT]
149 Kampo Medicine and Treatment of Senile Dementia
N. SHIBAHARA, Y. SHIMADA, H. GOTO, N. SEKIYA, T. KITA, AND K. TERASAWA [ABSTRACT]
Research Articles
161 Comparison of Six Different Calcium Sources and Meal Type on True Fractional Calcium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women
ELIZABETH J. BRINK, ELLEN G.H.M. VAN DEN HEUVEL, AND THEO MUIJS [ABSTRACT]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 105-112 (2003)

Cardiovascular Benefit of Long Chain n-3 Fatty Acids – The Evidence Gets Stronger
PHILIP C. CALDER AND PARVEEN YAQOOB
ABSTRACT: There is substantial evidence from epidemiologic studies that consumption of fish, especially oily fish, and of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) lowers risk of cardiovascular mortality. A protective effect on fatal myocardial infarction and, especially, sudden death has been widely reported. Secondary prevention studies using modest doses of n-3 PUFAs to patients who had survived a myocardial infarction demonstrate significant benefit in mortality reduction, again particularly so from sudden death. N-3 PUFAs beneficially alter several cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and they reduce atherosclerosis in animals. Whilst these effects may contribute to the overall reduction in cardiovascular mortality, they are not likely to contribute to the reduction in sudden death. Here, the anti-thrombotic and anti-arrhythmic effects of n-3 PUFAs are considered to be important. A recent study has highlighted another potential mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs might decrease the risk of cardiovascular events. This study showed that n-3 PUFAs from fish oil are incorporated into advanced atherosclerotic plaques and are associated with lower macrophage infiltration and with a morphology that is indicative of increased plaque stability. This is important because it is the considered that the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques to rupture rather than the degree of atherosclerosis is the primary determinant of thrombosis-mediated acute cardiovascular events.

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 1, pp. 113-119 (2003)
Functional Foods in Primary Prevention or Nutraceuticals in Secondary Prevention?
WILLIAM E.M. LANDS

ABSTRACT: Scientists used knowledge of the metabolic links of dietary essential fats to chronic disease and death to develop billions of dollars of successful pharmaceutical treatments, but they failed to translate the science into policy options that prevent the risk factors from emerging in the first place. A high proportion of omega-6 eicosanoid precursor in the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of tissue phospholipids supports overly vigorous formation and action of omega-6 eicosanoids in mechanisms that contribute to cardiovascular disease and death. The risk factor for this major worldwide killer is closely associated with observed mortality rates and is predicted from daily intakes of essential fatty acids. Voluntary food habits provide different individuals with proportions from 20 to 80 % omega-6 HUFA in tissue HUFA, greatly modifying the intensity of tissue omega-6 eicosanoid responses. This risk factor from present food choices can be modified easily by individuals carefully choosing available foods, by making new functional foods available to the public, or by providing neutraceuticals to identified patients. Are scientists ethical to withhold community-wide primary preventive nutrition procedures and only give treatment to diseased individuals in whom clinical signs appear?

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 1, pp. 121-135 (2003)

Role of Tocotrienols in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Breast Cancer
PAUL W. SYLVESTER AND ANDRE THERIAULT

ABSTRACT: The vitamin E family of compounds is divided into two subgroups called tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, these distinct subgroups display significant differences in biological action and potency. Evidence suggests that tocotrienols, in contrast to _-tocopherol, may have therapeutic value in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. The etiology of atherosclerosis is complex and involves many contributing factors. Similar to the action of cholesterol lowering drugs called statins, tocotrienols inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. In addition, tocotrienols inhibit other processes associated with atherosclerosis including, the oxidation of LDL, monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle proliferation. Tocotrienols, but not _-tocopherol, have also been found to inhibit proliferation and induce cell death in breast cancer cells. Although experimental evidence has been very promising, tocotrienol supplementation in human studies has produced inconsistent results. Discrepancies in experimental and human studies may be due to inefficient delivery of tocotrienols to target tissues in the body. Further research is needed in the areas of tocotrienol kinetics, formulation, and drug delivery, in order to determine and clarify the potential value of tocotrienols as therapeutic agents used in the prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer.

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 1, pp. 137-147 (2003)

Regulation of Health Claims for Foods in the US and Japan
ANNETTE DICKINSON

ABSTRACT: Health claims in food labeling and advertising could potentially be a useful tool in educating consumers about the health benefits of specific foods and of certain dietary patterns. In the United States, health claims in food labeling were authorized by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, provided the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pre-authorized the claims based on a finding that significant scientific agreement existed with regard to the proposed claim. The requirements of the law and of the implementing regulations are reviewed, as are specific regulations authorizing over a dozen specific claims. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 authorized Statements of Nutritional Support for dietary supplement products. The key statements used in the U.S. marketplace describe the effect of an ingredient or a product on the structure or function of the body. Provisions of the law and of FDA regulations are described, along with examples of specific statements now being utilized. Regulation of advertising claims by the Federal Trade Commission is also briefly reviewed. In Japan, health claims and nutrient function claims are also authorized by law. The approval process and examples of the types of claims permitted are discussed, as well as similarities and differences in the approaches adopted by the U.S. and Japan.

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 1, pp. 149-159 (2003)

Kampo Medicine and Treatment of Senile Dementia
N. SHIBAHARA, Y. SHIMADA, H. GOTO, N. SEKIYA, T. KITA, AND K. TERASAWA

ABSTRACT: With prolongation of the average life span, the inevitable increases in age-related cerebrovascular dis-orders and dementia have become major problems for society, and effective therapy for dementia has been eagerly awaited. In Japan, Kampo medicine has been used for the treatment of senile dementia since ancient times; however, research to elucidate the mechanism has just begun. Kampo prescriptions with anti-dementia efficacy include, Oren-gedoku- to, Choto-san, Touki-shakuyaku-san, Kami-untan-to,Yoku-kan-san-ka-chinpi-hange, and others. The appro-priate use of Kampo prescriptions have relieved or improved subjective and/or accompanying symptoms. However, the mechanisms of action, such as effect on neu-rotransmitters, and cerebral blood flow, have been clarified in only few cases. Therefore, there is an urgent need for extensive research to understand the mechanism of action of Kampo prescriptions. The future should see the develop-ment of new research-based Kampo medications. Kampo medicine, correctly evaluated, may be well positioned in modern medical treatment, as it might be centrally involved in the improvement of the quality of life of patients suffering from senile dementia.

 

 

 

 

Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, Volume 1, Number 1, pp. 161-168 (2003)

Comparison of Six Different Calcium Sources and Meal Type on True Fractional Calcium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women
ELIZABETH J. BRINK, ELLEN G.H.M. VAN DEN HEUVEL, AND THEO MUIJS

ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to compare true calcium absorption from six different calcium sources, being milk, carbonate, citrate/malate, phosphate, L-lactate and lactate/gluconate and to determine the effect of congestion of a Western or Asian breakfast on calcium absorption from calcium L-lactate. The study was conducted according to a randomized, 8-way crossover design. Ten postmenopausal women participated. Each calcium source was given once with a Western breakfast. In addition, calcium L-lactate was given with an Asian breakfast and without a breakfast. Calcium sources were labeled extrinsically or intrinsically with 44calcium. True calcium absorption was determined with the dual label stable isotope technique. True calcium absorption from the six calcium sources consumed with a Western breakfast ranged from 24.7% for tri-calcium-di-phosphate to 32.1% for calcium lactate/gluconate. Calcium absorption from calcium L-lactate and calcium lactate/gluconate were higher than from tri-calcium-di-phosphate (p-values were respectively 0.018 and 0.026), but no significant differences could be demonstrated with the other calcium sources investigated. Calcium was highly absorbed by postmenopausal women when calcium L-lactate was given with either a Western (31.5%) or an Asian (29.4%) breakfast. Calcium absorption did not differ significantly between the meals. Without breakfast, calcium absorption was significantly higher (45.0%).